This article is part of a Wall Street Journal guide comparing President Donald Trump and former Vice President Joe Biden on issues from climate change to health care and jobs.

WASHINGTON—President Trump and Democratic opponent Joe Biden have profound differences in key areas of U.S. foreign policy, but hold similar views about some major goals, including limiting troop deployments to the Middle East and Afghanistan.

Mr. Trump has aimed to highlight his foreign-policy credentials in the closing weeks of the 2020 campaign. In quick order, he has overseen peace agreements between Israel and two Gulf Arab states; helped launch Afghan peace talks; reduced troops in Iraq and Afghanistan; and pushed for a framework arms-control agreement with Russia.

Mr. Biden, with decades of international experience as a former senator and vice president, has criticized Mr. Trump for weakening U.S. alliances, strengthening ties to dictators and failing to curb Iran’s nuclear program after withdrawing from a 2015 accord negotiated when Mr. Biden was serving under President Obama.

Their view of alliances “is the greatest and most important difference between the candidates, even above their differing views on climate, Iranian nuclear programs, and maintaining minimal troop levels in Iraq, Syria and Afghanistan,” said retired Adm. James Stavridis, a former North Atlantic Treaty Organization commander.

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